Doxycycline Mono Hydrate – Uses, Side Effects, and More

Doxycycline Monohydrate

Doxycycline monohydrate is an antibiotic drug that is used to treat many bacterial diseases. The drug is available by many names in the pharmacies and can be obtained by doctor’s prescription. It is not suitable to self-medicate using this as it can cause more harm than benefit if not used correctly. The dosage form and the duration for using this drug depend upon your disease and age. Your general practitioner will only determine whether you should take the drug or not.

In this blog, there will be a discussion about the uses, side effects, interactions, and pharmacology of the drug. Still, it should be understood that you should only take this medicine if your doctor recommends it.

What is Doxycycline Mono Hydrate?

Doxycycline monohydrate is an antibacterial that belongs to the tetracycline group of antibiotics. It is used in the treatment of many different diseases that include:

  • Acne
  • Anthrax
  • Cholera
  • Dental Infections
  • Lyme Disease
  • Malaria
  • Respiratory Tract Infection
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Skin Infections
  • Urinary Tract Infection

It is used to treat infections of different types of body. The dosage of the drug is different for different types of infections.

Pharmacology

The drug is bacteriostatic, which means it stops the growth of bacteria and does not kill them. It inhibits protein synthesis. The drug is highly lipophilic, which makes it highly absorbable through the cell walls. This also means that doxycycline monohydrate has a high volume of distribution.

The elimination half-life is long because the drug gets reabsorbed through the renal tubules and gastrointestinal tract. It is also unstable at acidic pH, and that is why it enters the duodenum for absorption.

Mechanism of Action

Doxycycline monohydrate is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. It acts by binding to the 30s Ribosome subunit that is only present in the bacteria. This process prevents the binding of transfer RNA to messenger RNA, and thus it blocks the synthesis of protein. By not getting enough protein production, the growth of bacteria slows and gives time to the immune system to kill the bacteria.

Pharmacokinetics

As discussed above, the substance is highly absorbable, so it gets completely absorbed in the body, specifically in the small intestine. The peak concentration is reached within one to two hours of ingestion. It not only penetrates normal body cells but also crosses the cerebrospinal fluid and meninges.

Doxycycline is also a preferred drug for the treatment of gram-negative bacteria such as:

  • Coli
  • Enterobacter aerogenes
  • Shigella
  • Acinetobacter

Doxycycline as a Treatment for Acne

It is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of acne. The drug has positive results when used to treat young people. It is prescribed in oral dosage forms, e.g., Tablets and capsules. Doxycycline treats mild or severe acne and cellulitis.

It also reduces inflammation, so it is great for inflamed and pus-filled pustules. It does not treat non-inflammatory acne such as blackheads and milia. Doxycycline monohydrate works by reducing the number of bacteria on the skin so that no further breakouts can occur.

Dosage for Different Infections

Before discussing dosage, it should be noted that your physician or pharmacist might change the dosage according to the severity of the disease, your age, and other factors.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  • Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis: 100mg PO, twice a day for seven days.
  • Uncomplicated gonococcal infections: 100mg PO, twice a day for seven days.
  • Nongonococcal urethritis caused by U. urealyticum: 100mg PO, twice a day for seven days.

Respiratory Tract Infections

  • Respiratory infections caused by Haemophilus influenza, Klebsiella species, Streptococcus pneumonia.
  • Initial Dose: 200mg/day divided twice daily PO/IV on the first day Then
  • Maintenance Dose: 100-200mg/day per day or divided per 12 hours PO/IV

Acute Intestinal Amebiasis & Severe Acne

  • Initial Dose: 200mg/day divided twice daily PO/IV on the first day and then
  • Maintenance Dose: 100-200mg/day per day or divided per 12 hours PO/IV

Malaria

  • Prophylaxis: 100mg PO per day; begin taking 1-2 days before traveling to Malaria prone areas and continue daily during travel and for four weeks after returning
  • Severe Infection: 100mg PO/IV per 12 hours for seven days
  • Uncomplicated Infection: 100mg PO per 12 hours for seven days

Adverse Effects

The adverse effects that can occur due to doxycycline consumption include:

  • Anorexia
  • Diarrhea
  • Dysphagia
  • Enterocolitis
  • Erythema multiform
  • Esophageal Ulcer
  • Headache
  • Anemia
  • Nausea
  • Urticaria
  • Vomiting
  • Neutropenia

Cautions While Taking the Drug

  • Using the drug during the teeth development stage might cause permanent teeth discoloration. Use of the drug during this stage should only be done if the benefits outweigh the risks.
  • Diarrhea is an adverse effect of all antibiotics, so it should always be kept in mind before taking antibiotics.
  • When using any tetracycline, one should always wear sunscreen as it can cause photosensitivity.
  • Tetracycline has also been found to form a calcium complex in the bones. This effect can be reversed once you discontinue taking the antibiotics.

How to Take Doxycycline

While taking doxycycline, the patient should be advised to drink lots of water and keep hydrated to avoid ingestion. To avoid ulcers and diarrhea, take the medication with a meal. Wear sunscreen as photosensitivity is a major side effect.

Who should avoid it?

The following groups of people should avoid taking doxycycline monohydrate:

  • Pregnant Women
  • Children under the age of 8
  • People who are allergic to Tetracycline

Takeaway

Doxycycline monohydrate is an excellent choice for the treatment of several infections. Even this does not mean that you can self-medicate as it can lead to many risks. It is better to take this medication on the recommendation of your doctor or pharmacists as these people are experts. You would not know the right dosage and the right dosage form. Taking any antibiotic without a doctor’s recommendation will cause more harm than benefit.

 

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